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Saturday, November 7, 2020 | History

2 edition of Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes found in the catalog.

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes

Norman R Sefer

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes

annual report for period 20 March 1979 to 19 March 1980 for the project Identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels

by Norman R Sefer

  • 259 Want to read
  • 10 Currently reading

Published by U.S. G.P.O. in Washington, D.C .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Shale oils,
  • Petroleum, Synthetic

  • Edition Notes

    DOE/CS-50017-1

    Other titlesAnnual report for period 20 March 1979 to 19 March 1980 for the project Identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels
    Statementprepared by Norman R. Sefer, John A. Russell ; prepared for U.S. Department of Energy
    ContributionsRussell, J. A, United States. Dept. of Energy. Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Energy, Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxiii, 143 p. :
    Number of Pages143
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15476428M

    @article{osti_, title = {Comparative chemical characterization of shale oil- and petroleum-derived diesel fuels}, author = {Griest, W H and Higgins, C E and Guerin, M R}, abstractNote = {The Department of Defense is concerned with determining if a changeover from petroleum- to shale oil-derived mobility fuels would be accompanied by a significantly different toxicological hazard. Four major coal fuel projects which were performed at Southwest Research Institute over the past ten years are reviewed. Beginning with the “Alternative Fuels for Highway Utilization” project in , and the success of carbon-black/diesel fuel slurries, the development of the coal slurries is traced to the current technology. energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including petrol, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas. The lighter grades of crude oil produce the best yields of these products, but as the world's reserves of light and medium oil are. The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on.


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Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes by Norman R Sefer Download PDF EPUB FB2

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were.

Get this from a library. Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: annual report for period 20 March to 19 March for the project Identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels.

[Norman R Sefer; John A Russell; Southwest Research Institute. Mobile Energy Division.; United States. Synthetic fuels would be an easy fit for the transportation system because they could be used directly in automobile engines and are almost identical to fuels refined from crude oil.

That sets them apart from currently available biofuels, such as ethanol, which. The increased use of purchased hydrogen has implications for the refining industry's use of natural gas as a feedstock. There are two forms of hydrogen production: on-purpose hydrogen production using steam methane reformers (SMR), and hydrogen production as a by-product of other chemical processes.

of refining shale oil and gas. In our study we have focused on exploring „processing and refining‟ of shale oil and gas. For years, oil and gas companies have known liquid oil is locked up in shale formations.

Using advanced drilling techniques companies are now able to recover the liquid oil from great depths. Oil and gas. Synthetic diesel fuel from coal. Interest has renewed in coal-derived diesel fuels for several reasons. The surge in diesel vehicles has led to a desire to find a long-term low-carbon fuel for diesels.

Several of the nations that will be key to any action on global warming have vast coal resources, including the United States, China, and India. More In Coal and Consumable Fuels. Wires. UPDATE 3-U.S. shale oil output growth to slow in -Schlumberger CEO. U.S. shale gas investors brace for write-downs amid price plunge.

Tue, Feb. Coal transformation processes Patent fuel: manufactured from hard coal fines with binding agent BKB or Brown coal briquettes: composite fuel manufactured from brown coal without binding agent Coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquid) plants utilize coal to create liquid fuels (diesel, naphtha, etc.).

A refinery is an industrial complex that manufactures petroleum products, such as gasoline, from crude oil and other feedstocks. Many different types of refineries exist across the country. What differentiates one refinery from another are their capacities and the types of processing units used to produce these petroleum Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes book.

PETROLEUM REFINING AND THE PROD UCTION OF ULSG AND ULSD OCTO Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION This tutorial addresses the basic principles of petroleum refining, as they relate to the produc tion of ultra-low-sulfur fuels (ULSF), in particular.

Coal-based fuels are formed from coal gasification (creating synthetic gas from coal) followed by a series of steps to remove pollutants, synthesize the fuels and then separate out the liquids in a process known as Fischer-Tropsch.

CTL fuels have several advantages over other alternative fuels. Like GTL, coal-to-liquids (CTL) fuels are produced by isolating the hydrocarbons in existing fossil fuels and converting them to a form of synthetic fuel that can be used in existing vehicles' engines.

Manufacturers use two methods to make that conversion. The first, indirect coal liquefaction (ICL), uses the same Fischer-Tropsch process as gas-to-liquids fuels.

Shale oil is refined in the crude distillation section of the refinery into the primary components of light ends (hydrocarbons ranging from C1-C4), naphtha, jet fuel/kerosene, diesel, gas. Chapter 3 - CONVENTIONAL FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELS 31 Liquid Fuel and Oxidizer Liquid fuel is one of the major energy sources, particularly in transport sector.

Some of the common and special liquid fuels and oxidizers are listed in Tablealong with their respective applications. Liquid fuels are mainly obtained from the crude oil.

CTL: Current Status • Gas to Liquids (GTL) is commercial – Approximately $25,/bbl construction cost – Natural gas at $$/ MM Btus-RSP ~ $/BBL – Exxon-Mobil, Shell and Sasol plants planned in Qatar and Nigeria • Coal to Liquids technology – SasolBPD FT plants in South Africa – China Shenhua direct liquefaction plant – China Shenhua Sasol feasibility.

Sinceglobal coal consumption has grown faster than any other fuel. The five largest coal users are China, USA, India, Russia and Japan, accounting for 76% of total global coal use (WCA, ). Fo r coal utilisation in power generation and fuels visit.

Figure 1 – Share of coal in the global energy resources (Palmer. Download a PDF of "Refining Synthetic Liquids From Coal and Shale" by the National Research Council for free.

Download a PDF of "Refining Synthetic Liquids From Coal and Shale" by the National Research Council for free. A PDF is a digital representation of the print book, so while it can be loaded into most e-reader programs, it doesn't.

Get this from a library. Synthetic fuels from coal. [United States. Interagency Task Force on Synthetic Fuels from Coal.; United States. Department of the Interior.; United States.

Federal Energy Administration.] -- This report provides a data base for Project Independence Blueprint in the area of synthetic fuels from coal. This area involves both industrial practice and a relatively large.

Coal data: BP Statistical Review, June ; Oil & gas data: EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, Annual Report, Septemb er 22, Why Coal For Liquid Fuels. 0 Coal Oil Gas U.S. Reserves / Production Ratio Years Supply at Current • Abundant domestic Production reserves.

Refining Synthetic Liquids From Coal and Shale: Final Report of the Panel on R&D Needs in Refining of Coal and Shale Liquids, Energy Engineering Board, Assembly of Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / Seven test fuels were provided to research projects in the Department of Energy Alternative Fuels Utilization Program.

Currrent refining technology was applied for conversion of shale- and coal-derived feedstocks to gasolines, diesel fuel, and turbine fuel. Hydrogenation was used in all four process. Samples of these products are currently being supplied to bench-scale refining units for determining the effectiveness of state-of-the-art refinery processes to produce synthetic crude oils and specification transportation fuels.

Since coal-derived liquids will be small in volume for some years compared to those from petroleum, synthetic crude. E DOE/CS/ Regional refining modesl for alternative fuesl using shale and coal synthetic crudes. Annual report for period 20 March, to 19 March for the project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels.

Alternative fuels utilization program.   E DOE/CS/ Energey fuels utilization. @article{osti_, title = {Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes}, author = {Sullivan, R F}, abstractNote = {Syncrude from the Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) Process, derived from Illinois No.

6 coal, was refined to produce transportation fuels in an extensive program of laboratory and pilot plant studies. tion’s coal resources,while others will be relatively unique to coal lly, problems will vary among regions and the types of coal liquefaction technologies summarizes major environmental issues associated with producing synthetic fuels from coal,according to.

Coal, Biomass & Solid Fuels: WAL has decades of experience analyzing a variety of solid fuels for physical properties, content and combustion value. Interior region coal differences are due to a vari-ety of factors,but are a function of variations in the coal seam thickness and energy content of the coals.

COAL LIQUEFACTION AND REFINING Table also indicates the range of potential environmental impacts created by the coal liquefaction plant gh 8 —. Volatile fuel costs and a desire for energy independence have revived interest in another market for coal gasification technology: the production of liquid transportation fuels, chiefly gasoline and diesel fuel.

For the United States, routes to synthesis of liquid fuels from coal add substantial diversity in fuel supply capability, a large capacity for fuels production considering the great.

Shales: Our use of the term ‘shales’ refers to tight, shale and coal bed methane oil and gas acreage. Underlying operating cost is defined as operating cost less identified items. A reconciliation can be found in the quarterly results announcement.

electric grid for the western United States and other areas (eastern Baltic) with large oil shale (kerogen) reserves, and (3) competitive economics. Light water reactors (LWRs) are built on top of oil shale deposits.

Oil shale heating (surface such as Red Leaf or insitu) is accomplished in a two-step process via closed steam lines. Technological advances in producing and refining liquid fuels in situ using high-temperature heat from nuclear reactors can resolve two major problems—dependence on oil from unstable areas of.

fuels is coal. Coal has advantages of great abundance, relatively low cost and high energy density. Furthermore, the production of synthesis gas from coal (a first step in the process of making fuels) and the subsequent conversion of that synthesis gas to liquid fuels is a.

For nearly the first years the U.S used only wood as our energy source until about the mid ’s. Afterwards they started using more of what we think of as our standard energy materials such as coal and petroleum. The 20th century is when sources we now consider alternative started to appear such as hydraulic, nuclear, solar and natural gas.

The findings suggest that coal and oil shale are the most promising energy resource alternatives. A synthetic jet fuel similar to jet fuels in use today appears to be the most attractive aviation fuel derivable from coal, primarily because it requires lower energy expenditures and results in a less costly product than the other alternatives.

Alternative Fuels Research. EPA researches and evaluates the feasibility of running vehicles on non-petroleum fuels, such as alcohol fuels. The use of alternative fuels can potentially lower emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases, and reduce America’s dependence on imported oil.

Oil Sands Crudes Canadian Conventional Crudes e)) y Electricity, Coal, Grid H2, NG, Feedstock for SMR H2, NG, Heat for SMR H2, RFG, Heat for SMR H2, Crude, NCR Heat, RFG, RP Heat, NG Heat, Coke, FCC ration Steam, RFG, RP Steam, NG Gasoline Diesel-2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 2 2 11 1 1 2 4 2 2 Oil Sands Crudes Canadian Conventional.

alternative fuels much more quickly. We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel (a military fuel). This fuel is very.

The U.S. refining industry is expanding capacity, optimizing operations and increasing utilization rates to meet growing global demand for fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Inthere were petroleum refineries operating in the United States, with a total capacity of more than million b/d, and refinery utilization averaged 91 percent.

COAL TO GASOLINE (December ) Rising world oil prices have renewed interest in producing fuel from unconventional sources such as coal, oil shale, and biomass. Large coal reserves and viable technology to produce liquid fuels from coal give promise to the rebirth of a U.S. domestic coal industry.

In the long term it. Most people are at least somewhat aware that the U.S. shale oil boom has resulted in lower fuel prices at the pump. But they are probably less familiar with the economic impacts of the shale.

production processes. As part of this initiative, there has been a strong interest in using coal rather than oil or natural gas as an alternative raw material for the production of transport fuels, gas and chemicals.

Consequently, from onwards, China embarked on a structured programme of.different forms to produce fuels from either coal or natural gas.

No commercial scale coal-to-liquid (CTL) plants based on Fischer-Tropsch chemistry have been built since the Sasol plants. Although it is less known, there is another commercially proven alternative for converting coal-to-gasoline, through methanol.1 ExxonMobil’s methanol.Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining).

Coal is the one fossil energy source that can play a substantial role as a transitional energy source as one moves from the petroleum- and natural-gas-based economic system to the future economic system based on nondepletable or.